PROBALT publications

Governing the blue-green Baltic Sea: Societal challenges of marine eutrophication prevention. (Mia Pihlajamäki and Nina Tynkkynen, Eds., 2011)

 Eutrophication is currently regarded as the most serious ecological problem for the whole Baltic Sea. Considering that the Baltic Sea has already been the focus of environmental management efforts for 40 years, it is surprising that in reality the ecological state of the Baltic Sea is not improving. This implies that protective efforts such as international and national policies and regulations, as well as their implementation, have not been effective enough.

Management of Baltic Sea eutrophication is challenged by the complex ecological characteristics of the eutrophication problem, societal differences across the Baltic Sea region, and the multitude of actors involved in governing these efforts. As a consequence, the awareness of the problem of eutrophication, as well as national and sub-national aspirations, the ability to address eutrophication in national policies and the strengthening of policy implementation, varies across the region. Furthemore, the lack of a legal arrangement of Baltic Sea protection to cover all the coastal countries makes the situation intricate.

The ultimate aim of this report is to improve Baltic Sea eutrophication protection by identifying the challenges of more effective Baltic Sea eutrophication governance at national, regional and European Union levels, and the examination of nutrient trading as an instrument to more effectively combat eutrophication. In order to improve Baltic Sea eutrophication governance, the report outlines four sets of measures that, on the basis of the case studies, are urgently needed at various governance levels - ranging from international to local.

Download report: FIIA REPORT 31, 2011

FIIA Briefing Paper 63: Jokela, M., 2010. Uusia virtauksia Itämeren suojeluun: Ensimmäiset kokemukset yksityisen ja julkisen sektorin yhteistyöstä rohkaisevia.

Download PDF: FIIA Breafing Paper  (Available only in Finnish)


The Problems of the Protection of the Baltic Sea in the Regions of the Russian Federation: the Example of the Kaliningrad Region, in: Baltic Region, vol. 2, N4, 2010, p. 108-115


This article examines solutions to the environmental problems of the Baltic Sea in the Kaliningrad region. The authors focus on the implementation of the HELCOM recommendation, which stipulates the elimination of all sources of eutrohication (the so-called hot spots) as well as the construction of modern waste water treatment facilities. The study is base on the interviews with local experts and the analysis of regulatory documents.

The Challenge of Bridging Science and Policy in the Baltic Sea Eutrophication Governance in Finland: The perspective of Science
- by Mia Pihlajamäki and Nina Tynkkynen 
AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, Volume 40, Number 2, 191-199.
This article examines the views of scientists on intricacies of scientific knowledge that affect science–policy interface in the Baltic Sea eutrophication governance in Finland. The analysis demonstrates that these intricacies can be divided into five categories: (1) uncertainty of knowledge concerning ecological processes, (2) heterogeneity of knowledge, (3) societal and political call for (certain) knowledge, (4) contingency of the knowledge that ends up taken as a baseline for decision making and further research, and (5) linkages of knowledge production, processing, and communication to particular characteristics of individual researchers and research societies. By explicating these aspects, this article illustrates the ways in which scientific knowledge concerning eutrophication is human-bound and susceptible to interpretation, thus adding on to the uncertainty of the Baltic Sea environmental governance. The aim is, then, to open up perspectives on how ambiguities related to science–policy interface could be coped with.
Keywords Baltic Sea, Environmental governance, Eutrophication, Finland, Knowledge production, Science–policy interface
The problems of the protection of the Baltic Sea in the regions of the Russian Federation: The example of the Kaliningrad region
- by Maria Nochenko and Dmitry Nechiporuk
Baltic Region Journal: Белтийский регион, 2, 2010, с. 122-130. 
(Article is available also in English, but only as a printed version.)
- by Dr. Tom Schumacher, October 2009